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Santiago Bernal

Bernal, Santiago

Associate Research Scientist
1202D Energy Research Facility

Research Interests: 

Dr. Bernal's research interests are beam and accelerator physics, all aspects of experimental physics of intense charged particles beams (instrumentation, diagnostics, computer simulations).  He is also interested in thermodynamics and statistical mechanics in general and in educational aspects of physics.


Dr. Bernal joined the Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics in 2000.   He has been the leading experimentalist on the University of Maryland Electron Ring since joining IREAP.   He is a member of the American Physical Society and the American Association of Physics Teachers.


Dr. Bernal received a B.S. in physics from the National University of Colombia in 1981, a M.S. in physics from Georgia Institute of Technology in 1983, and a Ph.D. in physics from the University of Maryland in 1999. 

Selected Publications: 


S. Bernal, B. Beaudoin, H. Baumgartner, et al., "Ultra-Low Current Beams in UMER to Model Space-Charge Effects in High-Energy Proton and Ion Machines," AAC16, National Harbor, MD, Aug. 3, 2016.



A Practical Introduction to Beam Physics and Particle Accelerators, by Santiago Bernal (University of Maryland).  The Institute of Physics (IOP) and Morgan and Claypool Publishers, 2016.

The book's goal is to teach the principles of beam physics and particle accelerators through specific examples employing readily available computer tools. These include general high-end languages such as Mathcad and MatLab, as well as more specialized particle accelerator codes (e.g., MAD, WinAgile, Elegant, and others). This approach allows the student to readily identify relevant design parameters and their scaling. In addition, the computer input files can serve as templates that can be easily adapted to other related accelerators.

The examples presented comprise basic lens and deflector calculations, fringe fields, lattice and beam functions, envelope matching, and linear transverse and longitudinal space charge. The last part of the book presents examples of two major types of particle accelerators: Radio Frequency (RF) Linacs and Storage Rings. Lastly, the appendix gives the reader a brief description of the computer tools employed and concise instructions for their installation and use in the most popular computer platforms (Windows, Macintosh and Ubuntu Linux). Hyperlinks to websites containing all relevant files are also included.

Chapter 1:  Rays and Matrices
Chapter 2:  Linear Magnetic Lenses and Deflectors
Chapter 3:  Periodic Lattices and Functions
Chapter 4:  Emittance and Space Charge
Chapter 5:  Longitudinal Beam Dynamics and Radiation
Chapter 6:  Applications and Examples
Appendix: Computer Resources and Their Use


Modern Devices: The Simple Physics of Sophisticated Technology, by Charles L. Joseph (Rutgers University) and Santiago Bernal (University of Maryland).   John Wiley & Sons, 2016.

This book discusses the principles of physics through applications of state-of-the-art technologies and advanced instruments. The authors use diagrams, sketches, and graphs coupled with equations and mathematical analyses to enhance the reader's understanding of modern devices. Readers will learn to identify common underlying physical principles that govern several types of devices, while gaining an understanding of the performance trade-off imposed by the physical limitations of various processing methods. The topics discussed in the book assume readers have taken an introductory physics course, college algebra, and have a basic understanding of calculus.